I have a piece up at The Immanent Frame entitled “Curse God and Die: On Agamben and Job.” It use Agamben’s reflections on oaths and curses in The Sacrament of Language as a framework for investigating the frequent references to cursing God in The Book of Job.
This weekend I read Franco De Masi’s text Vulnerability to Psychosis. It’s an interesting object relations account of psychosis. In chapter six he addresses the relationship between the psychotic individual’s auditory hallucinations and the superego. The psychotic superego is often punitive, persecutory and excessively critical. Many individuals who have psychotic experience have command hallucinations such as “You should hurt yourself because you’re pure evil.” Interestingly, command hallucinations are particularly common for individuals who experienced serious childhood abuse. In this chapter De Masi draws a fascinating parallel between the God of the Book of the Job and the psychotic superego.
De Masi writes: “Blind with wrath and haughtily insistent on His right to dispose of His creatures as He sees fit, God hurls Himself upon Job and yells at this mere worm crawling in the dirt who dares to ask for explanations of His behavior. Before such an arrogant and narcissistically touchy God, Job appears as a desperate and devout person; the violence of his words against God is dictated more by exasperation that by rebellion. Everything would be assuaged if he would only understand the link between sin and punishment. The story of Job can, in my view, also be understood as the description of a relationship between the ego and the psychotic superego during the course of a psychotic breakdown, in which the protagonist, like my patient, finds himself expelled from the state of well-being and flung on to a dung-heap, a prey to a destructive and accusing voice…The psychotic patient is more like Job: he has to confront a threatening world that is out to annihilate and terrify him rather than to make him feel guilty. The God of Job demands subjection without even allowing him to understand the reason for the wrath and the origin of the sin: the patient in this phase therefore has to face not so much guilt as terror” (P 120-121).
De Masi then connects this experience with Klein’s understanding of the infant in the paranoid-schizoid position who attempts to negotiate the terrifying and chaotic world. At this stage, Klein understood the infant as trying to survive the annihilation anxiety generated by the infant’s powerful death drive. Bertram Karon has also described schizophrenia as a “chronic terror syndrome” where the patient is contending with horrifying realities that threaten their very existence. Job’s experience with the arbitrary and vengeful attitude of God parallels the psychotic individual’s experience with their auditory hallucinations. Often the psychotic individual is taken by complete surprise by the unpredictable and inexplicable ridicule of the menacing voices.
Bonus points for readers who can find other Biblical stories that nicely illustrate psychoanalytic principles.
[Originally posted over at my joint, but given the meandering path it took into things religious I thought I’d cross-post it here.]
Your note has made my day, and it’s only yet 9 a.m. It reminds me of a conversation I was having last night with a friend in which I tried to explain why I don’t regard myself as a pessimist, in the face of all contrary evidence and claims by others. I am, I insisted, under the influence of maudlin-making ale, an idealist who feels there is no place for ideals in the world. Of course, I know this sounds pessimistic through and through, but in my reckoning it is what feeds the Romantic / apocalyptic experience you mention.
The failure of words (& other communicative / artistic media) is necessary to their creative function. My friend and I don’t wholly disagree on this, but he seems more inclined than I to speak of one’s engagement with art as ultimately, if not immediately, disentangled from the world. While I agree that art is not wholly determined by the limitations set in stone, some quite literally, I am allergic even to a conversational nod that it ever stands beyond the fray, disinterested, hands-clean or abstract. You and I agree, romanticism & apocalypticism are indelibly linked, and as such remain inevitably messy. This messiness needn’t necessarily be a flaw, any more than existence as a whole is a mistake. I don’t see a position from which we can make such an evaluation without, in the process, doing much real-world damage. Though this has not stopped us from doing either. Continue reading “A Note: On Apocalypse, Moby-Dick & Job”
I’m currently in the planning stages of a course for next year. Currently the title of the course is “Contemporary Religious Thinking” and so, as you can expect, the options for this are quite vast. At the moment I’m playing around with the idea of having the course focus around suffering and violence by looking at contemporary responses to the book of Job. So we would read Alter’s translation of Job together and then the Job books of Gutierrez, Jung, and Negri. This would cover some very different “religious” forms of thinking, but I want to include responses from Judaism and Islam as well. Do any of our august readers know of any contemporary (so broadly within the 20th-21st centuries) works on Job from these traditions?
[I presented this on Saturday, November 19, under the auspices of the Bible, Theology, and Postmodernism group. I admit that my last couple paragraphs are somewhat self-indulgent, but my audience was forgiving.]
Gutierrez and Negri on Job:
Between Theology and Materialism
For those of us who have been following the burgeoning trend of radical philosophical readings of the Bible, Negri’s Labor of Job may represent something of a breath of fresh air, not least because a major philosopher has finally chosen to focus on something other than the letters of Paul. More significant from my perspective, however, is the fact that Negri brings a voice into this dialogue that has often been neglected by recent philosophical interpreters: liberation theology.